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An Overview of Academic Writing

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We quickly gather the details on how to write a document, be it a report, an essay or a dissertation




To assist a student’s educational ability, students need to be steered in a correct written direction. Such beneficial and informed knowledge has been provided by eAcademia.



The following short discussion emphasises what has been historically written, about research methods’ that have been used to date. Written emphasis is provided to the needs of the latter.

When recognising the above knowledge that will be needed to assist users to grasp the essence of writing, below an outline of the ‘science of writing research’ has been illustrated. Here the development of writing has been provided in three steps,


1) Descartes (1596-1650) created the notion of Cartesian dualism. Cartesian dualism describes the world as being made of two distinct substances. An extended substance which composes the body and the thinking substance which makes up the mind. He was the first person to clearly classify the mind with consciousness and to differentiate this from the brain, which held intelligence. Descartes was the first to create the mind body problem. He tried to question how the mind and body interact. Cartesian dualism viewed that the mind cannot be touched. Cartesian dualism viewed that the mind will persist in existing, yet the material body will not [1].

But when first considering dualism, dualism contrasts with monismMonism furthers the belief that there is only one thing in the world, be it a category, thing or principle. For instance, monism claims that only mind, or matter, is real. Descartes saw the mind is solely based on thought and the body is purely an addition. This mind body debate had begun with Plato and Aristotle [1].


2) Comte (1798-1857) founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism [2].

Praxeology is defined in Greek, as meaning ‘deed action’. Praxeology was, therefore, the deductive study of human action. Praxeology was based on the action that humans engage in, purposeful action, as opposed to reflexive behaviour like sneezing and inanimate behaviour. The doctrine of positivism continues the study of natural phenomena. Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain (positive) knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relationships. Positivism is an unobservable force. For instance, the force of gravity, reason of causation, beliefs or desires [2].


3) Locke (1632-1704) [3], Berkeley (1685-1753) [4] and Hume (1711-1776) [5] refer to empiricism. They believe that the only source of true knowledge of the world comes from sensory experience. Empiricism is a science of collecting data and facts through experiments and observation. Here experience and observation are recognised, as ways of collecting data or facts. Empiricism is usually contrasted with nativism or rationalismEmpiricism emphasises the importance of sensory experience, as opposed to nativism’s claim that knowledge is innate. Through empiricism, empiricism presents an ability to justifiably conduct research [3].


The Scientific Method

The scientific method is an element of research that can be measured. Preferably with a number. Only facts need to be presented. Bias should not be demonstrated.

To present the scientific method follow empirical research. Empirical research is a process of experimentation that is used to explore observations. Empirical research involves a number of steps,


  1. In a documents introduction, a question is presented to introduce the area about to be examined. 


  1. In the documents findings, begin by presenting the relevance of the basic ideas of answering the question: Descartes, Comte, [and other recognised, or relative and established views]. Recognise, by using empiricism the established knowledge of these respected authors is being presented. Then, regarding the subject in question, the author[s] opinions being highlighted gives their specific opinions on the subject. Here knowledge on the background to the subject will be demonstrated.


  1. By already having presented historical and established knowledge, built on this predict what is believed and has reason to follow? Here on top of point 2., build your own hypothetical point. With respect, add the extent it is believed the following paper will use these views. 


  1. Moving on from this, with empirical research, the student has reason to be involved in the research question. Empirical research has reason to take place. When presenting one example of empirical research, this research has reason to confirm the extent of this hypothesis.


  1. With point 4., all researchers should follow the same goal, and this is to find and discover, a cause and effect relationship[s] of the question, and then compare this with the last hypothesis that has been presented.


  1. When in a written discussion stay focused on the research objective. When providing a justified answer to the question. For instance, this would involve questioning a certain related if not identical instance, ‘Why do people act in a certain way?’ This question will involve research.


  1. In higher studies, such an observation may have reason to move towards a greater question. To assist understanding such a questioned situation, this may involve developing on a previous answer. As has already been presented in point 2..


  1. The relevant findings are then presented in a summary. The researcher’s own preferred root to answer the hypothesis and the reasoning for arriving at this hypothesis should also be given in this summary.


  1. A conclusion then needs to be presented. A conclusion answers the questioned point presented in the introduction.


  1. From this information present the relevant and or different recommendations that the research paper has highlighted. Present what further research will need to be presented to allow the question or a greater to be answered.


  1. Finally, present the references and back up the source data that have been presented throughout the paper.



A justified argument should follow the pictorial explanation presented below.





Students should recognise, when writing a document, established steps need to be followed to further the documents meaning.


[1] Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. (2008) Rene descates. Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes/. Accessed on: 2nd February 2016
 [2] Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. (2008) Auguste comte. Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/comte/. Accessed on: 2nd February 2016
[3] Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. (2001) John locke. Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/. Accessed on: 2nd February 2016
[4] Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. (2004) George berkeley. Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/berkeley/. Accessed on: 2nd February 2016
[5] Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. (2001) David hume. Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hume/. Accessed on: 2nd February 2016



With the above knowledge, student written skills can and will improve quickly. Please be aware that further knowledge lies within. To continue to achieve and gain yet improved outstanding marks, please read, Step Four, Deductive Logic.




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